What is the name of a new drive in my FreeBSD box

or a quick way to list GEOM configuration in FreeBSD

Drives related information questions, including that one in the title, may be tricky for a new (and sometimes for an experienced) FreeBSD user, and even Handbook advises to see the “dmesg” output to check the drives when adding new drives:

“Inspect `/var/run/dmesg.boot` to ensure the new disk was found. In this example, the newly added SATA drive will appear as `ada1`.”

Actually, there are many methods and utilities to check drives, and one of the most powerful tool is “camcontrol”. But what if you are dealing with GEOM stack or checking a partition? The solution is to check GEOM configuration:

sysctl -n kern.geom.conftxt

or

sysctl -n kern.geom.confxml

Yes, this is not a panacea, but it can give a hint.

I have written a simple script (geom_show) which can be used to process GEOM configuration and print out basic information about volumes: mediasize, sectorsize, stripesize and etc. It doesn’t not require root privileges and runs without any additional dependencies. And, hah, it makes me feel like an old programmer because it actually consists of pure AWK code and a wrapper in Bourne shell 😉

I hope, it can help someone to make things simpler, and, please, let me know if it doesn’t.

#!/bin/sh

# Copyright (c) 2017 Mikhail Zakharov <zmey20000@yahoo.com>
# All rights reserved.
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
# are met:
# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
# SUCH DAMAGE.

#
# Show GEOM configuration
#
# Typical usage:
# 	geom_show.sh -l -c DISK
#
# 2017.07.25	 1.0

# Defaults ---------------------------------------------------------------------
ofs=","					# Output Field Separator is "comma"
show_headers=true			# Show headers in output

# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
usage()
{
	error_code=$1			# Error code on exit() to the caller
	error_text="$2"			# Short error message to print
	usage_help="Usage:
  geom_show.sh -k [-s separator]
	List disk names known by the kernel.
  geom_show.sh -g [-s separator]
  geom_show.sh -g -c CLASS [-s separator]
	List GEOM provider names of all or any particular class.
  geom_show.sh -l -c CLASS | -p PROVIDER [-h] [-s separator]
	Show details of GEOM provider(s). Filter entries by CLASS or exact
	PROVIDER name. Suppress headers with -h key.
  geom_show.sh -d [-s separator]
	Dump raw GEOM configuration.
Use [-s separator] to specify output field separator. Default is comma: (,)."

	[ "$error_text" ] && printf "Error: $error_text\n"
	printf "$usage_help\n"
	exit $error_code
}

# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
awk="/usr/bin/awk"
sed="/usr/bin/sed"
sysctl="/sbin/sysctl"

# Error messages --------------------------------------------------------------
err_kgld_flags="Options -k, -g, -l or -d cannot be combined together."
err_no_flags="Specify -k, -g, -l or -d option to show disks configuration."
err_cp_flags="Specify -c, -p flag or both."

geom_show='#!/usr/bin/awk -f
# Copyright (c) 2017 Mikhail Zakharov <zmey20000@yahoo.com>
# All rights reserved.
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
# are met:
# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
# SUCH DAMAGE.
#
# Parse GEOM configuration
#
# Typical usage:
# sysctl -n kern.geom.confxml | /path/to/geom_show.awk -v "class=DISK"
#
# Other options:
#	-v provider="ada0"	Specify GEOM provider to show
#	-v noheader="yes"	Omit header
#	-v short="yes"		Short form prints only providers name(s)
# 2017.07.25	v 1.0
BEGIN {
	FS = ">|<"
	if (!ofs)
		ofs = ","
	OFS = ofs
	gprov = provider
	gclass = class
	if (!gprov && !gclass)
		short = "yes"
	if (gclass && !gprov && !short && noheader != "yes")
		print_header(gclass)
}
function expanded_length(s) { gsub("\t", "        ", s); return length(s) }
function print_header(gclass) {
	common_header = "Class" ofs "Provider" ofs "Mediasize" ofs \
		"Sectorsize" ofs "Stripesize" ofs "Stripeoffset"
	disk_header = common_header ofs "Heads" ofs "Sectors" ofs "RPM" ofs \
		"Ident" ofs "Description"
	md_header =  common_header ofs "Heads" ofs "Sectors" ofs "Compression" \
		ofs "Access" ofs "Type"
	part_header = common_header ofs "Start" ofs "End" ofs "Index" ofs "Type"
	if (gclass == "DISK")
		print disk_header
	else if (gclass == "MD")
		print md_header
	else if (gclass == "PART")
		print part_header
	else print common_header
}
/<name>/,/<\/name>/ {
	depth = expanded_length($1)
	if (depth == 4)
		if ($3 == gclass || !gclass) {
		# We have found requested GEOM Class
			in_class = 1
			current_gclass = $3
		} else
			in_class = 0
	if (in_class && depth == 10) {
		if (gprov == $3) {
			# GEOM class for the given provider is detected
			gclass = current_gclass
			if (gclass && !short && noheader != "yes")
				print_header(gclass)
		}
		# This should be the GEOM Name
		gname = $3
	}
}
/<mediasize>/ || /<sectorsize>/ || /<stripesize>/ || /<stripeoffset>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 10)
	# These are common, default fields for all providers
			gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}
/<fwheads>/ || /<fwsectors>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12)
		if (gclass == "DISK" || gclass == "MD")
			gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}
/<rotationrate>/ || /<ident>/ || /<descr>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12 && gclass == "DISK")
		gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}
/<compression>/ || /<access>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12 && gclass == "MD")
		gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}
/<type>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12)
		if (gclass == "MD" || gclass == "PART")
			gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}
/<start>/ || /<end>/ || /<index>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12 && gclass == "PART")
		gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}
/<\/provider>/  {
	if (in_class && expanded_length($1) == 8) {
		if (!gprov || gprov == gname)
			if (current_gclass != "LABEL" &&
				current_gclass != "DEV" ||
				current_gclass == gclass)
					if (!short)
						print gclass ofs gname gdata
					else {
						if (!entry_1)
							printf gname
						else
							printf ofs gname
						entry_1 = 1
					}
		gdata = ""
	}
}
END {
	if (short)
		printf "\n"
}'

# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
while getopts "kgldc:p:hs:" flag
do
	case "$flag" in
		k)      k_flag=true ;;
		g)	g_flag=true ;;
		l)	l_flag=true ;;
		d)	d_flag=true ;;
		c)	c_flag=true; c_arg="$OPTARG" ;;
		p)	p_flag=true; p_arg="$OPTARG";;
		h)	h_flag=true ;;
		s)	s_flag=true; s_arg="$OPTARG" ;;
		*)      usage 1 ;;
	esac
done

[ ! $k_flag ] && [ ! $g_flag ] && [ ! $l_flag ] && [ ! $d_flag ] &&
	usage 1 "$err_no_flags"
[ $s_flag ] && ofs="$s_arg"

# geom_show.sh -k [-s separator] -----------------------------------------------
if [ $k_flag ] ; then
	[ $g_flag ] || [ $l_flag ] || [ $d_flag ] && usage 1 "$err_kgld_flags"

	$sysctl -n kern.disks | $sed "s/ /$ofs/g"
	exit 0
fi

# geom_show.sh -g [-s separator] | geom_show.sh -g -c CLASS [-s separator] -----
if [ $g_flag ] ; then
	[ $k_flag ] || [ $l_flag ] || [ $d_flag ] && usage 1 "$err_kgld_flags"
	[ $c_flag ] && gclass="$c_arg"

	"$sysctl" -n kern.geom.confxml |
		"$awk" -v ofs="$ofs" -v short="yes" -v class="$gclass" \
			"$geom_show"
	exit 0
fi

# geom_show.sh -l -c CLASS | -p PROVIDER [-h] [-s separator] -------------------
if [ $l_flag ] ; then
	[ $g_flag ] || [ $k_flag ] || [ $d_flag ] && usage 1 "$err_kgld_flags"
	[ ! $c_flag ] && [ ! $p_flag ] && usage 1 "$err_cp_flags"
	[ $c_flag ] && gclass="$c_arg"
	[ $p_flag ] && gprov="$p_arg"
	[ $h_flag ] && noheader="yes" 

	"$sysctl" -n kern.geom.confxml |
		"$awk" -v ofs="$ofs" -v class="$gclass" \
			-v provider="$gprov" -v noheader="$noheader" \
			"$geom_show"
	exit 0
fi

# geom_show.sh -d [-s separator] -----------------------------------------------
if [ $d_flag ] ; then
	[ $k_flag ] || [ $g_flag ] || [ $l_flag ] && usage 1 "$err_kgld_flags"

	geom_dump=`$sysctl -n kern.geom.conftxt | sed -e "s/ /$ofs/g"`
	printf "$geom_dump\n"
	exit 0
fi
#!/usr/bin/awk -f

# Copyright (c) 2017 Mikhail Zakharov <zmey20000@yahoo.com>
# All rights reserved.
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
# are met:
# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
# SUCH DAMAGE.

#
# Parse GEOM configuration
#
# Typical usage:
# sysctl -n kern.geom.confxml | /path/to/geom_show.awk -v "class=DISK"
#
# Other options:
# 	-v provider="ada0"	Specify GEOM provider to show
#	-v noheader="yes"	Omit header
#	-v short="yes"		Short form prints only provider name(s)

# 2017.07.25	v 1.0

BEGIN {
	FS = ">|<"

	if (!ofs)
		ofs = ","
	OFS = ofs

	gprov = provider
	gclass = class

	if (!gprov && !gclass)
		short = "yes"

	if (gclass && !gprov && !short && noheader != "yes")
		print_header(gclass)
}

function expanded_length(s) { gsub("\t", "        ", s); return length(s) }

function print_header(gclass) {
	common_header = "Class" ofs "Provider" ofs "Mediasize" ofs \
		"Sectorsize" ofs "Stripesize" ofs "Stripeoffset"
	disk_header = common_header ofs "Heads" ofs "Sectors" ofs "RPM" ofs \
		"Ident" ofs "Description"
	md_header =  common_header ofs "Heads" ofs "Sectors" ofs "Compression" \
		ofs "Access" ofs "Type"
	part_header = common_header ofs "Start" ofs "End" ofs "Index" ofs "Type"

	if (gclass == "DISK")
		print disk_header
	else if (gclass == "MD")
		print md_header
	else if (gclass == "PART")
		print part_header
	else print common_header
}

/<name>/,/<\/name>/ {
	depth = expanded_length($1)

	if (depth == 4)
		if ($3 == gclass || !gclass) {
		# We have found requested GEOM Class
			in_class = 1
			current_gclass = $3
		} else
			in_class = 0

	if (in_class && depth == 10) {
		if (gprov == $3) {
			# GEOM class for the given provider is detected
			gclass = current_gclass
			if (gclass && !short && noheader != "yes")
				print_header(gclass)
		}
		# This should be the GEOM Name
		gname = $3
	}
}

/<mediasize>/ || /<sectorsize>/ || /<stripesize>/ || /<stripeoffset>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 10)
	# These are common, default fields for all providers
			gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}

/<fwheads>/ || /<fwsectors>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12)
		if (gclass == "DISK" || gclass == "MD")
			gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}

/<rotationrate>/ || /<ident>/ || /<descr>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12 && gclass == "DISK")
		gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}

/<compression>/ || /<access>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12 && gclass == "MD")
		gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}

/<type>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12)
		if (gclass == "MD" || gclass == "PART")
			gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}

/<start>/ || /<end>/ || /<index>/ {
	if (!short && in_class && expanded_length($1) == 12 && gclass == "PART")
		gdata = gdata ofs $3
	next
}

/<\/provider>/  {
	if (in_class && expanded_length($1) == 8) {
		if (!gprov || gprov == gname)
			if (current_gclass != "LABEL" &&
				current_gclass != "DEV" ||
				current_gclass == gclass)
					if (!short)
						print gclass ofs gname gdata
					else {
						if (!entry_1)
							printf gname
						else
							printf ofs gname
						entry_1 = 1
					}
		gdata = ""
	}
}

END {
	if (short)
		printf "\n"
}

See the code on the GitHub and on the project page of my blog.

UPD 2017.07.26. There is a nice update on diskinfo by Allan Jude.

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About mezzantrop

10 years of experience in large SAN and storage environments: mainly Hitachi, HP and Brocade. Now I am a proud SAN/storage IBMer. Empty – expect-like tool author. FreeBSD enthusiast.
This entry was posted in My projects, Storage, Storage Automation and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

3 Responses to What is the name of a new drive in my FreeBSD box

  1. Pingback: What is the name of a new drive in my FreeBSD box? - FreeBSDNews.com

  2. Shane says:

    While your script does provide disk info, I don’t think it answers the title question, “What is the device name of my new drive?” More specifically if I plug in a usb drive, what device do I mount? The tail of dmesg is the only way I have figured to get the newest device name. Even if I shutdown, add a new drive and start, which drive is the one I just added? Maybe a list of drives/partitions that aren’t used by a mounted filesystem?

    Liked by 1 person

    • mezzantrop says:

      Ha, true, thank you! Content does not answer the title question well and honestly should be changed to something like “How to get a list of all drives/partitions/labels/etc in my FreeBSD box?”, or even better name could be “A quick way to list GEOM configuration in FreeBSD”. So I’ll leave the original title in situ but add additional subtitle for it.

      Like

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